Hydrocodone is used to relieve severe pain. Hydrocodone is only used to treat people who are expected to need medication to relieve severe pain around-the-clock for a long time and who cannot be treated with other medications or treatments. Hydrocodone extended-release (long-acting) capsules or extended-release tablets should not be used to treat pain that can be controlled by medication that is taken as needed. Hydrocodone is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain.
This monograph only includes information about the use of hydrocodone alone. If you are taking a hydrocodone combination product, be sure to read information about all the ingredients in the hydrocodone-combination monograph and ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Side Effects Of Hydrocodone
Hydrocodone may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- stomach pain
- dry mouth
- back pain
- muscle tightening
- difficult, frequent, or painful urination
- ringing in the ears
- difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
- foot, leg, or ankle swelling
- uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms or those listed in the WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS sections, call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment:
- chest pain
- agitation, hallucinations (seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist), fever, sweating, confusion, fast heartbeat, shivering, severe muscle stiffness or twitching, loss of coordination, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
- nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness, or dizziness
- inability to get or keep an erection
- irregular menstruation
- decreased sexual desire
- swelling of your eyes, face, lips, tongue, or throat
- changes in heartbeat
- difficulty swallowing or breathing
Hydrocodone may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
Warnings & Precautions
Before taking hydrocodone:
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to hydrocodone, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in hydrocodone extended-release capsules or extended-release tablets. Ask your pharmacist or check the Medication Guide for a list of the ingredients.
- tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, and nutritional supplements you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications listed in the IMPORTANT WARNING section and any of the following medications: antihistamines (found in cough and cold medications); amiodarone (Nexterone, Pacerone); azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax); butorphanol; chlorpromazine; citalopram (Celexa); cyclobenzaprine (Amrix); dextromethorphan (found in many cough medications; in Nuedexta); dronedarone (Multaq); haloperidol (Haldol); laxatives such as lactulose (Cholac, Constulose, Enulose, others); levofloxacin (Levaquin); lithium (Lithobid); medications for irritable bowel disease, Parkinson’s disease, ulcers, and urinary problems; medications for migraine headaches such as almotriptan (Axert), eletriptan (Relpax), frovatriptan (Frova), naratriptan (Amerge), rizatriptan (Maxalt), sumatriptan (Imitrex, in Treximet), and zolmitriptan (Zomig); mirtazapine (Remeron); nalbuphine; pentazocine (Talwin); 5HT3 serotonin blockers such as alosetron (Lotronex), dolasetron (Anzemet), granisetron (Kytril), ondansetron (Zofran, Zuplenz), or palonosetron (Aloxi); selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Brisdelle, Prozac, Pexeva), and sertraline (Zoloft); serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as desvenlafaxine (Khedezla, Pristiq), duloxetine (Cymbalta), milnacipran (Savella), and venlafaxine (Effexor); trazodone (Oleptro); or tricyclic antidepressants (‘mood elevators’) such as amitriptyline, clomipramine (Anafranil), desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Silenor), imipramine (Tofranil), nortriptyline (Pamelor), protriptyline (Vivactil), and trimipramine (Surmontil). Also tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking or receiving the following medications or have stopped taking them within the past two weeks: isocarboxazid (Marplan), linezolid (Zyvox), methylene blue, phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar), or tranylcypromine (Parnate). Many other medications may also interact with hydrocodone, so be sure to tell your doctor about all the medications you are taking, even those that do not appear on this list. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
- tell your doctor what herbal products you are taking, especially St. John’s wort and tryptophan.
- tell your doctor if you have any of the conditions mentioned in the IMPORTANT WARNING section, a blockage or narrowing of your stomach or intestines, or paralytic ileus (condition in which digested food does not move through the intestines). Your doctor may tell you not to take hydrocodone.
- tell your doctor if you have or have ever had low blood pressure, difficulty urinating, seizures, or thyroid, gall bladder, pancreas, liver, or kidney disease. If you are taking the extended-release tablets, also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had difficulty swallowing, colon cancer (cancer that begins in the large intestine), esophageal cancer (cancer that begins in the tube that connects the mouth and stomach), heart failure (HF; a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to other parts of the body), or heart rhythm problems such long QT syndrome (a condition that increases the risk of developing an irregular heartbeat that may cause fainting or sudden death).
- tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding.
- you should know that this medication may decrease fertility in men and women. Talk to your doctor about the risks of taking hydrocodone.
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking hydrocodone.
- you should know that hydrocodone may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery until you know how this medication affects you.
- you should know that hydrocodone may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up too quickly from a lying position. This is more common when you first start taking hydrocodone. To avoid this problem, get out of bed slowly, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up.
- you should know that hydrocodone may cause constipation. Talk to your doctor about changing your diet and using other medications to treat or prevent constipation.
Hydrocodone comes as an extended-release (long-acting) capsule and an extended-release (long-acting) tablet to take by mouth. The extended-release capsule is usually taken once every 12 hours. The extended-release tablet is usually taken once daily. Take hydrocodone at around the same time(s) every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take hydrocodone exactly as directed by your doctor.
Swallow the extended-release capsules or extended-release tablets one at a time with plenty of water. Swallow each capsule or tablet as soon as you put it in your mouth. Do not presoak, wet, or lick the extended-release tablets before you put them in your mouth.
Your doctor will probably start you on a low dose of hydrocodone and may gradually increase your dose, not more than once every 3 to 7 days if needed to control your pain. After your take hydrocodone for a period of time, your body may become used to the medication. If this happens, your doctor may increase your dose of hydrocodone or may prescribe a different medication to help control your pain. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling during your treatment with hydrocodone.
Do not stop taking hydrocodone without talking to your doctor. If you suddenly stop taking hydrocodone, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as restlessness, teary eyes, runny nose, yawning, sweating, chills, hair standing on end, muscle pain, widened pupils (black circles in the middle of the eyes), irritability, anxiety, back or joint pain, weakness, stomach cramps, difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep, nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, fast breathing, or a fast heartbeat. Your doctor will probably decrease your dose gradually.
Keep all appointments with your doctor and laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your body’s response to hydrocodone.
Before having any laboratory test (especially those that involve methylene blue), tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking hydrocodone.
This prescription is not refillable. Be sure to schedule appointments with your doctor on a regular basis so that you do not run out of hydrocodone if your doctor wants you to continue taking this medication. If you continue to have pain after you finish your hydrocodone prescription, call your doctor.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
All information has been provided courtesy of MedLinePlus from the National Library of Medicine and from the FDA.