Takayasu’s Arteritis

Takayasu’s Arteritis
Takayasu’s Arteritis

Overview Of Takayasu’s Arteritis

Takayasu Arteritis is an inflammation of large arteries such as the aorta and its major branches. The aorta is the artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Commonly Associated With

Pulseless disease, Large-vessel vasculitis

Causes Of Takayasu’s Arteritis

The cause of Takayasu arteritis is not known. The disease occurs mainly in children and women between the ages of 20 to 40. It is more common in people of East Asian, Indian or Mexican descent. However, it is now being seen more often in other parts of the world. Several genes that increase the chance of having this problem were recently found.

Takayasu arteritis appears to be an autoimmune condition. This means the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the blood vessel wall. The condition may also involve other organ systems.

This condition has many features that are similar to giant cell arteritis or temporal arteritis in older people.

Symptoms Of Takayasu’s Arteritis

Symptoms may include:

  • Arm weakness or pain with use
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Lightheadedness
  • Muscle or joint pain
  • Skin rash
  • Night sweats
  • Vision changes
  • Weight loss
  • Decreased radial pulses (at the wrist)
  • Difference in blood pressure between the two arms
  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • There may also be signs of inflammation (pericarditis or pleuritis).

Exams & Tests

There is no blood test available to make a definite diagnosis of Takayasu’s arteritis. The diagnosis is made when a person has symptoms and imaging tests show blood vessel abnormalities suggesting inflammation.

Possible tests include:

  • Angiogram, including coronary angiography
  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Computed tomography angiography (CTA)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Ultrasound
  • X-ray of the chest

Treatment Of Takayasu’s Arteritis

Treatment of Takayasu arteritis is difficult. However, people who have the right treatment can improve. It is important to identify the condition early. The disease tends to be chronic, requiring long-term use of anti-inflammatory medicines.

MEDICINES

Most people are first treated with high doses of corticosteroids such as prednisone. As the disease is controlled the dose of prednisone is decreased.

In almost all cases of Takayasu’s arteritis, immunosuppressive drugs are added to reduce the need for long-term use of prednisone and yet maintain control of the disease.

Conventional immunosuppressive agents such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide, or leflunomide are often added.

Biologic agents may also be effective. These include TNF inhibitors such as infliximab, etanercept, and tocilizumab.

SURGERY

Surgery or angioplasty may be used to open up narrowed arteries to supply blood or open up the constriction.

Aortic valve replacement may be needed in some cases.