Overview Of Basal Ganglia Dysfunction
Basal Ganglia Dysfunction is a problem with the deep brain structures that help start and control movement.
Commonly Associated With
Extrapyramidal syndrome; Antipsychotics – extrapyramidal
Causes Of Basal Ganglia Dysfunction
Conditions that cause injury to the brain can damage the basal ganglia. Such conditions include:
- Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Drug overdose
- Head injury
- Liver disease
- Metabolic problems
- Multiple sclerosis (MS)
- Poisoning with copper, manganese, or other heavy metals
A common cause of these findings is the chronic use of medicines used to treat schizophrenia.
Many brain disorders are associated with basal ganglia dysfunction. They include:
- Dystonia (muscle tone problems)
- Huntington disease (disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts of the brain waste away, or degenerate)
- Multiple system atrophy (widespread nervous system disorder)
- Parkinson disease
- Progressive supranuclear palsy (movement disorder from damage to certain nerve cells in the brain)
- Wilson disease (disorder causing too much copper in the body’s tissues)
Symptoms Of Basal Ganglia Dysfunction
Damage to the basal ganglia cells may cause problems controlling speech, movement, and posture. This combination of symptoms is called parkinsonism.
A person with basal ganglia dysfunction may have difficulty starting, stopping, or sustaining movement. Depending on which area of the brain is affected, there may also be problems with memory and other thought processes.
In general, symptoms vary and may include:
- Movement changes, such as involuntary or slowed movements
- Increased muscle tone
- Muscle spasms and muscle rigidity
- Problems finding words
- Uncontrollable, repeated movements, speech, or cries (tics)
- Walking difficulty
Exams & Tests
The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask about the symptoms and medical history.
Blood and imaging tests may be needed. These may include:
- CT and MRI of the head
- Genetic testing
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to look at the blood vessels in the neck and brain
- Positron emission tomography (PET) to look at the metabolism of the brain
- Blood tests to check blood sugar, thyroid function, liver function, and iron and copper levels
Treatment Of Basal Ganglia Dysfunction
Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder.