Overview Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. It usually grows and spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer.
There are three common types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC):
- Adenocarcinomas are often found in an outer area of the lung.
- Squamous cell carcinomas are usually found in the center of the lung next to an air tube (bronchus).
- Large cell carcinomas can occur in any part of the lung.
- There are more uncommon types of lung cancer that are also called non-small.
Commonly Associated With
Cancer – lung – non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma – lung; Squamous cell carcinoma – lung; Large cell carcinoma – lung
Causes Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of non-small cell lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and for how long you have smoked. Being around the smoke from other people (secondhand smoke) also raises your risk of lung cancer. But some people who have never smoked do develop lung cancer.
Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between smoking marijuana and developing lung cancer.
Constant exposure to high levels of air pollution and drinking water that has a high level of arsenic can increase your risk of lung cancer. A history of radiation therapy to the lungs can also increase risk.
Working with or living near cancer-causing chemicals or materials can also increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Such chemicals include:
- Chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust
- Certain alloys, paints, pigments, and preservatives
- Products using chloride and formaldehyde
Symptoms Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Symptoms may include:
- Chest pain
- Cough that does not go away
- Coughing up blood
- Loss of appetite
- Losing weight without trying
- Shortness of breath
- Pain when it spreads to other areas of the body
- Early lung cancer may not cause any symptoms.
Other symptoms that may be due to NSCLC, often in the late stages:
- Bone pain or tenderness
- Eyelid drooping
- Hoarseness or changing voice
- Joint pain
- Nail problems
- Swallowing difficulty
- Swelling of the face
- Shoulder pain or weakness
- These symptoms can be due to other, less serious conditions. It is important to talk to your health care provider if you have symptoms.
Exams & Tests
The provider will perform a physical exam and ask about your medical history. You will be asked if you smoke, and if so, how much you smoke and for how long you have smoked. You will also be asked about other things that may have put you at risk of lung cancer, such as exposure to certain chemicals.
Tests that may be done to diagnose lung cancer or see if it has spread include:
- Bone scan
- Chest x-ray
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- CT scan of the chest
- MRI of the chest
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
- Sputum test to look for cancer cells
- Thoracentesis (sampling of fluid buildup around the lung)
In most cases, a piece of tissue is removed from your lungs for examination under a microscope. This is called a biopsy. There are several ways to do this:
- Bronchoscopy combined with biopsy
- CT-scan-directed needle biopsy
- Endoscopic esophageal ultrasound (EUS) with biopsy
- Mediastinoscopy with biopsy
- Open lung biopsy
- Pleural biopsy
If the biopsy shows cancer, more imaging tests are done to find out the stage of cancer. Stage means how big the tumor is and how far it has spread. NSCLC is divided into 5 stages:
Stage 0 — cancer has not spread beyond the inner lining of the lung.
Stage I — The cancer is small and has not spread to the lymph nodes.
Stage II — cancer has spread to some lymph nodes near the original tumor.
Stage III — cancer has spread to nearby tissue or too far away lymph nodes.
Stage IV — cancer has spread to other organs of the body, such as the other lung, brain, or liver.
Treatment Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
There are many different types of treatment for NSCLC. Treatment depends on the stage of cancer.
Surgery is the common treatment for NSCLC that has not spread beyond nearby lymph nodes. The surgeon may remove:
- One of the lobes of the lung (lobectomy)
- Only a small part of the lung (wedge or segment removal)
- The entire lung (pneumonectomy)
Some people need chemotherapy. Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells and stop new cells from growing. Treatment may be done in the following ways:
Chemotherapy alone is often used when cancer has spread outside the lung (stage IV).
It may also be given before surgery or radiation to make those treatments more effective. This is called neoadjuvant therapy.
It may be given after surgery to kill any remaining cancer. This is called adjuvant therapy.
Chemotherapy is usually given through a vein (by IV). Or, it may be given by pills.
Controlling symptoms and preventing complications during and after chemotherapy is an important part of care.
Immunotherapy is the newer kind of treatment that can be given by itself or with chemotherapy.
Targeted therapy may be used to treat NSCLC. Targeted therapy uses drugs zero in on specific targets (molecules) in or on cancer cells. These targets play a role in how cancer cells grow and survive. Using these targets, the drug disables the cancer cells so they cannot spread.
Radiation therapy can be used with chemotherapy if surgery is not possible. Radiation therapy uses powerful x-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells. Radiation may be used to:
- Treat cancer, along with chemotherapy, if surgery is not possible
- Help relieve symptoms caused by cancer, such as breathing problems and swelling
- Help relieve cancer pain when cancer has spread to the bones
- Controlling symptoms during and after radiation to the chest is an important part of care.
The following treatments are mostly used to relieve symptoms caused by NSCLC:
- Laser therapy — A small beam of light burns and kills cancer cells.
- Photodynamic therapy — Uses light to activate a drug in the body, which kills cancer cells.