Insulin degludec is used to treat type 1 diabetes (a condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). It is also used to treat people with type 2 diabetes (a condition in which the body does not use insulin normally and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) who need insulin to control their diabetes. In patients with type 1 diabetes, insulin degludec must be used with another type of insulin (short-acting insulin). In patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin degludec may be used with another type of insulin or with oral medication(s) for diabetes. Insulin degludec is a long-acting, man-made version of human insulin. Insulin degludec works by replacing the insulin that is normally produced by the body and by helping move sugar from the blood into other body tissues where it is used for energy. It also stops the liver from producing more sugar.
Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Using medication(s), making lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, quitting smoking), and regularly checking your blood sugar may help to manage your diabetes and improve your health. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage (numb, cold legs or feet; decreased sexual ability in men and women), eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes.
Side Effects Of Insulin Degludec
This medication may cause changes in your blood sugar. You should know the symptoms of low and high blood sugar and what to do if you have these symptoms. Insulin degludec may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- redness, swelling, pain, or itching at the injection site
- skin thickening (fat build-up) or a little depression in the skin (fat breakdown)
- weight gain
- Some side effects can be serious. If you experience these symptoms, call your doctor immediately or get emergency treatment:
- rash, hives, or itching all over the body
- difficulty breathing or swallowing
- shortness of breath
- swelling of the eyes, face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, or feet
- muscle weakness
Insulin degludec may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while using this medication.
Warnings & Precautions
Before using insulin degludec:
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to insulin (Humulin, Novolin, others), any of the ingredients in insulin degludec, or any other medications. Ask your pharmacist or check the manufacturer’s patient information for a list of the ingredients.
- tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking. Be sure to mention any of the following: albuterol (Accuneb, Proair, Proventil, others); angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) such as benazepril (Lotensin, in Lotrel), captopril, enalapril (Vasotec, in Vaseretic), fosinopril, lisinopril (in Prinzide, in Zestoretic), moexipril (Univasc, in Uniretic), perindopril (Aceon, in Prestalia), quinapril (Accupril, in Accuretic, in Quinaretic), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik, in Tarka); angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) such as azilsartan (Edarbi, in Edarbyclor), candesartan (Atacand, in Atacand HCT), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro, in Avalide), losartan (Cozaar, in Hyzaar), telmisartan (Micardis, in Micardis HCT, in Twynsta), valsartan (Diovan, in Diovan HCT, in Exforge); atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine (Clozaril, Fazaclo, Versacloz) and olanzapine (Zyprexa, in Symbyax); beta-blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin, in Tenoretic), labetalol (Trandate), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL, in Dutoprol, in Lopressor HCT), nadolol (Corgard, in Corzide), and propranolol (Hemangeol, Inderal LA, Innopran XL); cholesterol-lowering medications such as fenofibrate (Antara, Lipofen, TriCor, Triglide), gemfibrozil (Lopid), and niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, in Advicor, in Simcor); clonidine (Catapres, Catapres-TTS, Kapvay, in Clorpres, others); danazol; disopyramide (Norpace); diuretics (‘water pills’); fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, Selfemra, in Symbyax); glucagon; guanethidine; HIV protease inhibitors including atazanavir (Reyataz, in Evotaz), indinavir (Crixivan), lopinavir (in Kaletra), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra, in Viekira Pak), and saquinavir (Invirase); isoniazid (Laniazid, in Rifamate, in Rifater); lithium (Lithobid); medications for asthma and colds; medications for diabetes; menopausal hormone therapy and hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); medications for mental illness and nausea; monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors including isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar) and tranylcypromine (Parnate); octreotide (Sandostatin); pioglitazone (Actos, in Actoplus Met, in Duetact, others); pentamidine (NebuPent, Pentam); pentoxifylline (Pentoxil); pramlintide (Symlin); propoxyphene (not available in the U.S.); reserpine; rosiglitazone (Avandia, in Avandamet, in Avandaryl); salicylate pain relievers such as aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate, choline salicylate, diflunisal, magnesium salicylate (Doan’s, others), and salsalate; somatropin (Genotropin, Humatrope, Nutropin, Serostim, others); steroids such as dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone (Rayos); sulfa antibiotics; terbutaline; and thyroid medications. Your doctor may need to change the doses of your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.
- tell your doctor if you have or have ever had nerve damage caused by your diabetes, or any other medical conditions, including heart, liver, or kidney disease.
- tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. If you become pregnant while using insulin degludec, call your doctor.
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are using insulin degludec.
- alcohol may cause a change in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the safe use of alcoholic beverages while you are using insulin degludec.
- ask your doctor what to do if you get sick, experience unusual stress, or change your diet, exercise, or activity schedule. These changes can affect your blood sugar and the amount of insulin you will need.
- ask your doctor how often you should check your blood sugar. Be aware that hypoglycemia may affect your ability to perform tasks such as driving and ask your doctor if you need to check your blood sugar before driving or operating machinery.
Dosage Of Insulin Degludec
- Insulin degludec comes as a solution (liquid) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is injected once a day. You should use insulin degludec at the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Use insulin degludec exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
- Insulin degludec controls diabetes, but does not cure it. Continue to use insulin degludec even if you feel well. Do not stop using insulin degludec without talking to your doctor. Do not switch to another brand or type of insulin or change the dose of any type of insulin you are using without talking to your doctor. Always check the insulin label to make sure you received the right type of insulin from the pharmacy.
- Insulin degludec comes in prefilled dosing pens. Be sure you know what type of container your insulin degludec comes in and what other supplies, such as needles, you will need to inject your medication. Be sure to read and understand the manufacturer’s instructions. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to show you how to use the pen. Follow the directions carefully, and always perform the safety test before use.
- Never reuse needles or pens. Do not transfer the medication to a syringe. When you are using an insulin pen, always remove the needle right after you inject your dose. Throw away needles and syringes in a puncture-resistant container. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how to dispose of the puncture-resistant container.
- Do not dilute insulin degludec and do not mix insulin degludec with any other type of insulin.
- You can inject your insulin degludec in your upper arm, thigh, or stomach area. Never inject insulin degludec into a vein or muscle. Change (rotate) the injection site within the chosen area with each dose; try to avoid injecting the same site more often than once every 1 to 2 weeks.
- Always look at your insulin degludec before you inject it. It should be clear and colorless. Do not use your insulin degludec if it is colored, cloudy, or contains solid particles, or if the expiration date on the bottle has passed.
- Do not use insulin degludec in an external insulin pump.
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly to determine your response to insulin degludec. Your doctor will also tell you how to check your response to this medication by measuring your blood sugar levels at home. Follow these instructions carefully.
You should always wear a diabetic identification bracelet to be sure you get proper treatment in an emergency. Do not let anyone else use your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
All information has been provided courtesy of MedLinePlus from the National Library of Medicine and from the FDA.