Dapagliflozin is used along with diet and exercise, and sometimes with other medications, to lower blood sugar levels in adults with type 2 diabetes (condition in which blood sugar is too high because the body does not produce or use insulin normally). Dapagliflozin is also used to reduce the risk of needing to be hospitalized for heart failure in adults who have type 2 diabetes along with heart and blood vessel disease or who have multiple risk factors for developing heart and blood vessel disease. Dapagliflozin is also used in adults with heart failure to reduce the risk of needing to be hospitalized and death due to heart and blood vessel disease. Dapagliflozin is in a class of medications called sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. It lowers blood sugar by causing the kidneys to get rid of more glucose in the urine. Dapagliflozin is not used to treat type 1 diabetes (a condition in which the body does not produce insulin and, therefore, cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood) or diabetic ketoacidosis (a serious condition that may develop if high blood sugar is not treated).
Over time, people who have diabetes and high blood sugar can develop serious or life-threatening complications, including heart disease, stroke, kidney problems, nerve damage, and eye problems. Taking dapagliflozin, making lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, quitting smoking), and regularly checking your blood sugar may help to manage your diabetes and improve your health. This therapy may also decrease your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes-related complications such as kidney failure, nerve damage (numb, cold legs or feet; decreased sexual ability in men and women), eye problems, including changes or loss of vision, or gum disease. Your doctor and other healthcare providers will talk to you about the best way to manage your diabetes.
Side Effects Of Dapagliflozin
This medication may cause changes in your blood sugar. You should know the symptoms of low and high blood sugar and what to do if you have these symptoms.
Dapagliflozin may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
- urinating a lot, including at night
- increased thirst
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
- frequent, urgent, burning, or painful urination
- urine that is cloudy, red, pink, or brown
- strong-smelling urine
- the decrease in the amount of urine
- pelvic or rectal pain
- (in women) vaginal odor, white or yellowish vaginal discharge (may be lumpy or look like cottage cheese), or vaginal itching
- (in men) redness, itching, or swelling of the penis; rash on the penis; foul-smelling discharge from the penis; or pain in the skin around the penis
- feeling tired, weak, or uncomfortable; along with a fever and pain, tenderness, redness, and swelling of the genitals or the area between the genitals and the rectum
- swelling of the legs or feet
If you experience any of the following symptoms, stop taking dapagliflozin and call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment:
- difficulty breathing or swallowing
- swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, mouth, or eyes
If you experience any of the following symptoms of ketoacidosis, stop taking dapagliflozin and call your doctor immediately or get emergency medical treatment. If possible, check for ketones in your urine if you have these symptoms, even if your blood sugar is less than 250 mg/dL:
- stomach-area pain
- difficulty breathing
Dapagliflozin may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking this medication.
Warnings & Precautions
Before taking dapagliflozin:
- tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to dapagliflozin, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in dapagliflozin tablets. Ask your pharmacist or check the Medication Guide for a list of the ingredients.
- tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin, in Lotrel), captopril, enalapril (Vasotec, in Vaseretic), fosinopril, lisinopril (in Zestoretic), moexipril (Univasc, in Uniretic), perindopril (Aceon, in Prestalia), ramipril (Altace), and trandolapril (Mavik, in Tarka); angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) such as azilsartan (Edarbi, in Edarbyclor), candesartan (Atacand, in Atacand HCT), eprosartan (Teveten), irbesartan (Avapro, in Avalide), losartan (Cozaar, in Hyzaar), olmesartan (Benicar, in Azor, in Benicar HCT, in Tribenzor), telmisartan (Micardis, in Micardis HCT, in Twynsta); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); diabetes medications such as glimepiride (Amaryl, in Duetact), glipizide (Glucotrol), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase), repaglinide (Prandin, in Prandimet), and tolbutamide; diuretics (‘water pills’); and insulin.
- tell your doctor if you are on dialysis and if you have or have ever had kidney disease. Your doctor may tell you not to take dapagliflozin.
- tell your doctor if you regularly drink alcohol or sometimes drink large amounts of alcohol in a short time (binge drinking) or if you are on a low sodium diet. Also, tell your doctor if you have or have ever had heart failure, pancreatic disease including pancreatitis (swelling of the pancreas) or have had surgery on your pancreas, urinary tract infections or problems urinating, low blood pressure, yeast infections in the genital area, kidney or liver disease. If you are male, tell your doctor if you have never been circumcised. Also tell your doctor, if you are eating less due to illness, surgery, or a change in your diet, or have recently had diarrhea, vomiting, not been drinking enough fluids, been in the sun too long, or have been sweating a lot, which may cause dehydration (loss of a large number of body fluids).
- tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Do not breastfeed while you are taking dapagliflozin. If you become pregnant while taking dapagliflozin, call your doctor.
- if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, tell the doctor or dentist that you are taking dapagliflozin. Your doctor will probably tell you to stop taking dapagliflozin at least 3 days before surgery.
- alcohol may cause a change in blood sugar. Ask your doctor about the safe use of alcoholic beverages while you are taking dapagliflozin.
- you should know that dapagliflozin may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up too quickly from a lying position. If you have this problem, call your doctor. This problem is more common when you first start taking dapagliflozin. To avoid this problem, get out of bed slowly, resting your feet on the floor for a few minutes before standing up.
- ask your doctor what to do if you get sick, develop an infection or fever, experience unusual stress, or are injured. These conditions can affect your blood sugar and the amount of dapagliflozin you may need.
Dosage Of Dapagliflozin
Dapagliflozin comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is taken usually with or without food once a day in the morning. Take dapagliflozin at around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take dapagliflozin exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Your doctor may start you on a low dose of dapagliflozin and increase your dose if needed.
Dapagliflozin controls type 2 diabetes but does not cure it. Continue to take dapagliflozin even if you feel well. Do not stop taking dapagliflozin without talking to your doctor.
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will probably order certain laboratory tests before and during your treatment to check your body’s response to dapagliflozin.
Your blood sugar levels should be checked regularly to determine your response to dapagliflozin. Your doctor will order other lab tests, including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), to check your response to dapagliflozin. Your doctor will also tell you how to check your response to this medication by measuring your blood sugar levels at home. Follow these instructions carefully.
Before having any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are taking dapagliflozin. Because of the way this medication works, your urine may test positive for glucose.
You should always wear a diabetic identification bracelet to be sure you get proper treatment in an emergency.
Do not let anyone else take your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
All information has been provided courtesy of MedLinePlus from the National Library of Medicine and from the FDA.